Coal seam gas water
Direct use, chemical treatment, partial desalination and/or blending to achieve “agricultural grade”, with beneficial re-use by irrigation to trees or crops.
Process based water treatment via desalination, ion exchange or similar, storage of waste brine, and piping of treated water to conventional storages / distribution infrastructure.
Intercepted mine water
Direct use, chemical treatment and/or partial treatment to achieve “agricultural grade”, with beneficial re-use by irrigation to trees or crops.
Impoundment in large, plastic-lined holding ponds, evaporation and rehabilitation of impoundment post mining.
Sewage effluent and sanitation
- Irrigation of secondary treated water to trees/crops to neutralise contaminants and beneficially use nutrients.
- Release of secondary treated water to wetlands to neutralise contaminants and remove nutrients (may require periodic harvesting to avoid nutrient saturation).and
- Full water treatment via underground wetland to neutralise contaminants and remove nutrients.