- Groundwater interception and saline water evaporation
- Constructed drainage
Biodiversity, landscape restoration and offsets
Forested corridors provide landscape connectivity between remnant vegetation and increase effective habitat area, providing conservation outside reserves and improving effectiveness of offsets.
Preservation of genetic diversity in bio-banks represents one extreme approach to preserving genetic diversity. More commonly, examples of ecosystems are maintained in representative reserves. The risk is that conservation across the broader landscape outside reserves may be ignored.
Catchment water quality
Riparian restoration, erosion mitigation and overall catchment management can significantly filter and remove sediment and nutrients from run-off, improving stream water quality, aquatic ecological health, and quality of water entering dam storages, reducing cost of process treatment. A specific case is nutrient offsets.
Process based treatment for nutrient and sediment removal. In the absence of catchment control, treatment plants may become overloaded in high runoff periods, and no benefit provide to stream water quality, aquatic ecological health.