Breeding and hybridisation to combine desirable production and quality traits between elite individuals and species by natural crossing. Intensive production from genetically improved pasture, crop and tree resources improves the capacity of natural products to meet human needs and contributes to reduced pressure on natural areas.
Genetic engineering involves direct manipulation and generally movement of genes between non-naturally interbreeding species. It can complement natural breeding where there is no risk of escape to natural populations.
Timber from plantations and sustainably managed native forests provides a renewable resource with low embodied energy and net carbon sink
Steel, aluminium, concrete are all non-renewable resources with high embodied energy and high carbon emission footprint.